Tanzimat: A Brief Outlook of Secular Reforms in the Ottoman Empire
. When the Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain during the inquisition in 1492, the eighth Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (1447-1512) welcomed them to his dominions and granted them Ottoman citizenship
. Ishtiaq Hussain, “ The Tanzimat: The Secular Reforms in the Ottoman Empire”, p.5
. ‘Ibid. p. 6,
. Ibid., p. 7
. Aijaz Ahmed, Islam in Modern Turkey (1938-19820, (Aligarh, 2009), pp. 7-8
R. H. Davison, Reform in the Ottoman Empire (New Jersey, 1963), p.37 and Turkey. P.78.
. Jews, Christians, Armenians, Albanians and Greeks were included in non-Muslim millets. They were given more rights to encompass all segments of the society. Millet was replaced by Osmanlilik (Ottomanism).
R. H. Davison, op.cit., p.44.
. Elie Elhadj, The Islamic Shield: Arab Resistance to Democratic and Religious Reforms (USA: Brown
Walker Press Florida, 2007), p. 49
. Ilber Ortayli, Ottoman Studies (Istanbul: Bilgi University Press, Second Edition, 2007), p164
. B. Lewis, op.cit, pp. 105-116.
. Mazheruddin Siddiqui, op.cit., p.243.
. For details see, H. W. V. Temporally (ed.), A History of the Peace Conference of Paris, vol. VI, (London, 1924), pp.1-80.
. Ishtiaq Hussain, op.cit., p. 9
. H. Scheel, op.cit., p.15.
. The included the Schools of Finance (1878); Law(1878), Fine Arts (1879), commerce (1882) , Civil Engineering (1884), Veterinary Science (1889 (1889), Police(1891), customs (1892) and improved new Medical School (1898), Bernard Lewis, op.cit., p.177.
. R. H. Davison, Reform in the Ottoman Empire 1856 - 1876 , p. 116
.. Hans-Lucas Kaiser and Walter Stoffel, Revolution of Islamic Law. Eighty years of the Swiss Civil
Code in Turkey (Berlin: Tagungsbericht University of Fribourg, 2006), p. 1
. Talal Asad, Formation of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity (Stanford University Press, 2003), p. 210. Cf. Ishtiaq Hussain. Op. cit., p. 10
. Serif Mardin, The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought, (Princeton, 1962), p. 18.
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