Afghan Refugee Teacher Education (From 1980 To 2015): A Qualitative Case Study of BEFARe, Peshawar, Pakistan
Refugee teacher education has remained an area of research and practice that has received little attention of academics and researchers alike. In first providing a brief description of the Soviet model of education after their arrival in Afghanistan, the purpose of this paper is to describe the process of rehabilitation of Afghan refugees and provision of emergency education to them. Grounding this empirical research into Lev Vygotsky’s and Yrjo Engeström’s First Generation Activity Theory (FGAT), and Second Generation Activity Theory (SGAT, henceforth),this research paper aims to decipher the socio-economic and cultural context of Afghan refugees before applying SGAT on Afghan Refugees Teachers’ Education (ARTE, henceforth). Qualitative research design was used to conduct this research, whereas, data was collected from primary sources through conducting semi-structured interviews and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) to gain deep insight into the subject matter. However, secondary sources, such as reports of UNHCR, BEFARe/GTZ were also used to substantiate the central argument. Purposive sampling strategy was used to get sample for the study. Major findings of the study show that the influence of the curriculum taught to student teachers brought certain changes in Afghan refugee teachers’ pedagogical skills, and resolved the problems of some classroom teaching practices. The findings also showed that BEFARe remained successful in changing Afghan refugee student teachers’ teaching methods from traditional teaching to activity based teaching. The study contributes to the current knowledge in the field of teacher education and training, the Afghan Ministry of Education, and other NGOs’ working in Afghanistan for education, emergency teachers’ training in general, and specifically refugees’ education across the world.
Activity Theory. [PPT]. [online]. Available at http://www.slideshare.net/ozten/activity-theory-in-20-slides.[Accessed: August 23, 2014.]
Ali, R., Kamal, T. (2015). The Role of Basic Education for Afghan Refugees in Promoting Primary Education: A Case Study of BEFARe Controlled Institutions in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 6(3): 208-215. [online] Available at: http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEDS/article/view/19932/20438[Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
Development of Software for Educational Activities Presentation Transcript . [PPT].[Online] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/leoburd/msc-defense?qid=6af9bc78-8c90-4799-a484-1f200cced941&v=qf1&b=&from_search=1. [Accessed: August 23, 2014].
Drechsler, H., Munsch, H., Wintermeier, J. (August 2005). Basic education for Afghan Refugees and displaced populations. Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur German Technical Cooperation. [online] Available at:https://www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/gtz2005-en-refugees-education-study.pdf[Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
Ekanayake, S.B. (2003). Mega trends and challenges in refugees education, A guide book for trainers, basic education for awareness reforms and empowerment/basic education for Afghan refugees reports. Befare @befare.org. Accessed: 21.01.2017
Ekanayake, S.B. (2000). Education in the Doldrums: Afghan Tragedy. Peshawar: Al-Azeem Printing Press.
Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by Expanding: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Developmental Research. [unpublished PhD Dissertation] Finland: Orienta Konsultit,
Engeström,Y. (n.d). What is Activity Theory?. [Online] Available at: http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~mryder/itc/act_dff.html, [Accessed: 25 May 2015].
George, A.A. (2016, Oct 25). Disintegration of the USSR: Reasons and Impact. Clear IAS. Retrieved from https://www.clearias.com/disintegration-of-the-ussr/
Grossman, P.L. (1999). Appropriating Tools for Teaching English: A Theoretical Framework for Research on Learning to Teach. American Journal of Education, 108(1): 12.
Hardman, J. (2007). An Activity Theory Approach to surfacing the pedagogical object in a primary school mathematics classroom. Critical Social Studies no.1
Hardman, J. (2007). Making sense of the meaning maker: tracking the object of activity in a computer-based mathematics lesson using activity theory. International Journal of Education and Development Using ICT, 3(4). South Africa: University of Cape Town. P. 7. [online] Avalable at: http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/viewarticle.php?id=423&layout=html[Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
Hardman, J. (2008). Researching Pedagogy: An Activity theory approach. Journal of education, no. 45. School of Education, University of Cape Town
Hetland, A. (2006). Learning Away From Home: A Foundation Book in Refugee and Emergency Education 1980-2005. Islamabad: Alhamra Publishing. P. 119.
Holt, G.R. and Morris, A.W. (1993).Activity Theory and the Analysis of the Organizations. Human organization, 52(1).The Society for Applied Anthropology.
IRC. (2004, April). Psychosocial Teacher Training Guide .published by International Rescue Committee. Accessed Ist Jan 2022. P.19
Kain, D., Wardle, E. (n.d.). Activity Theory: An Introduction for the Writing Classroom. East Carolina University, Elizabeth Wardle, University of Dayton
Kaptelinin, V. (2009).Acting with Technology: Activity Theory and Interaction Design. The MIT Press.http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262513315?ie=utf$tag=ozten20linkcode=as2and camp Activity Theory in 20 slides Presentation Transcript. Accessed: 8th Feb 2018.
Kaptelinin, V., Kuutti, K & Bannon, L. (2005, June 02). Activity Theory: Basic Concepts and Applications. Springer link. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/3-540-60614-9_14?noAccess=true
Kartinibinti, Suhari. (2015).Improving Teaching Practice Trough Online Video on VIMEO WEBSITE, Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/4751160/IMPROVING_TEACHING_PRACTICE_TROUGH_ONLINE_VIDEO_ON_VIMEO_WEBSITE Accessed: 25th May 2015.
Lloyd, A. (2011, May 9). Activity Theory: Mapping the Terrain. [online] Available at: http://phdblog.net/activity-theory-mapping-the-terrain/. Accessed 5 Dec. 2017
Lynch, L.C. Y. (2010). Understanding Cultural Historical Activity Theory. In Activity System Analysis Methods: Understanding Complex Learning Environment.
Mtika, P.D.G. (2008). Teaching practice as a component of teacher education in Malawi: an activity theory perspective. (Ph.D. thesis).University of Nottingham. [online] Available at: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/10526/1/FINAL_THESIS.pdf [Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
Naidoo, J. (n.d.). Exploring the use of activity theory as a framework for the teaching and learning of mathematics. University of Kwazulu-Natal: School of Education.
Riet, M.V.D. (July 2014). An Introduction to Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), Part one (Video lecture).University of KwaZulu Natal. [online] Available at:www.Vimeo.com[Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
Roth, W.M. (n.d.). Activity Theory and Education: An Introduction. University of Victoria, p. 13. Accessed: 11th June 2014.
Samady, S. (2001).Education and Afghan society in the twentieth century. Paris: UNESCO. Accessed 25th August 2010.
Sannino, A., Daniels, H., Gutierrez. (2009). Learning and expanding with Activity theory. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
UNESCO. (2005). Proposed Minimum Curriculum Contents for In-Service Training of Afghan Refugee Teachers in Pakistan. Islamabad: UNESCO [online] Available at:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001505/150553eo.pdf[Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
UNHCR. (2001, December). Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries. Switzerland: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. [online] Available at:http://www.unhcr.org/4a1d5ba36.pdf[Accessed 5 Dec. 2017].
United Nations. (2006). PAKISTAN: UN helps returnees integrate into Afghan schools. [online] Available at:http://www.irinnews.org/report/34309/pakistan-un-helps-returnees-integrate-into-afghan-schoolshumanitarian news and analysis a service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs IRIN Islamabad, 17 May 2006. Accessed: 20th July 2015.
Wilson, V. (2014). Examining teacher education through cultural historical activity theory. University of Columbia.
- There are currently no refbacks.