Impact of School Leaders’ Emotional Intelligence on Followership among Teachers having Passive Followership Style


  • Shamas Suleman Arshad PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Khurram Rafi PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Zia Ul Badar PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Minhaj University Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Mohsan Ishaque PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan



Emotional intelligence is considered crucial for school leaders to enhance the performance of their followers generally. However, passive followers are considered highly dependent on the thoughts of their leaders and always wait for the orders to initiate an activity. Therefore, the research was conducted to find out the impact of school leaders’ emotional intelligence on the followership of the teachers having passive followership style. The survey consisted of 1209 respondents out of which 87 were identified as passive followers. A self-developed scale on followership and an adopted scale on emotional intelligence were used. Results revealed that passive teachers’ competence, commitment, and courage are significantly explained through school leaders’ emotional intelligence. Whereas, passive teachers’ self-management is insignificantly explained through school leaders’ emotional intelligence. Hence, the concerned authorities may focus on the emotional intelligence of the school leaders along with the followership style of the teachers at the time of their selection and professional development.


G. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, “On certain integrals of Li Badea, L., & Panӑ, N. A. (2010). The Role of Empathy in Developing the Leader's Emotional Intelligence. Theoretical & Applied Economics, 17(2).

Banutu-Gomez, M. B. (2004). Great leaders teach exemplary followership and serve as servant leaders. Journal of American Academy of Business, 4(1/2), 143-151.

Bennis, W. (2009). Crises reveal the quality of leadership. Leader to Leader, 2009(54), 27-31. DOI:

Blackshear, P. B. (2003). The followership continuum: A model for fine-tuning the workforce. Public Manager, 32(2), 25-25.

Blom, M., & Alvesson, M. (2015). Less followership, less leadership? An inquiry into the basic but seemingly forgotten downsides of leadership. M@ n@ gement, 18(3), 266-282.

Brown, T. A., & Moore, M. T. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis. Handbook of structural equation modeling, 361-379.

Carsten, M. K., Uhl-Bien, M., West, B. J., Patera, J. L., & McGregor, R. (2010). Exploring social constructions of followership: A qualitative study. The leadership quarterly, 21(3), 543-562. DOI:

Castillo, R., Salguero, J. M., Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Balluerka, N. (2013). Effects of an emotional intelligence intervention on aggression and empathy among adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 36(5), 883-892 DOI:

Chakrabarti, G., & Chatterjea, T. (2018). Intelligence?… emotions?… or, the emotional intelligence: Theories and evidence in global context. In Employees' Emotional Intelligence, Motivation & Productivity, and Organizational Excellence (pp. 11-49). Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. DOI:

Chaleff, I. (2009). The courageous follower: Standing up to & for our leaders. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Cherniss, C., & Goleman, D. (2001). The emotionally intelligent workplace. Jossey-Bass.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cook, G. L., Bay, D., Visser, B., Myburgh, J. E., & Njoroge, J. (2011). Emotional intelligence: The role of accounting education and work experience. Issues in Accounting Education, 26(2), 267-286. DOI:

Crippen, C. (2012). Enhancing authentic leadership− followership: Strengthening school relationships. Management in Education, 26(4), 192-198.

Crippen, C. (2012). Enhancing authentic leadership− followership: Strengthening school relationships. Management in Education, 26(4), 192-198. DOI:

Diamantopoulos, A., & Winklhofer, H. M. (2001). Index construction with formative indicators: An alternative to scale development. Journal of marketing research, 38(2), 269-277. DOI:

Dumitru, A., Motoi, A. G., & Budica, A. B. (2015). What kind of leader is a manager?. Annals of the University of Craiova for Journalism, Communication, and Management, 1, 50-60.

Fink, S., & Markholt, A. (2011). Leading for instructional improvement: How successful leaders develop teaching and learning expertise. John Wiley & Sons.

Gaur, N., & Gupta, V. (2017). Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Leadership Development in Knowledge-based Organizations. International Journal of Management Research, 8(1).

Goleman, D. (1998). The emotionally competent leader. In The Healthcare Forum Journal (Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 36-38).

Goleman, D. (2013). The focused leader. Harvard business review, 91(12), 50-60.

Government of Pakistan (2009). National Education Policy 2009. Islamabad: Ministry of Education

Haynes, S. N., & Lench, H. C. (2003). Incremental validity of new clinical assessment measures. Psychological assessment, 15(4), 456. DOI:

Henry, B. C. (2012). Leadership models for effective change management. International Journal of Computer Science and Management Research, 1(4), 817-819.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 43(1), 115-135. DOI:

Hinić, D., Grubor, J., & Brulić, L. (2017). Followership styles and job satisfaction in secondary school teachers in Serbia. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 45(3), 503-520. DOI:

Jaussi, K. S., Stefanovich, A., & Devlin, P. G. (2008). Effective followership for creativity and innovation: A range of colors and Educational Administration and Leadership (REAL), 4(2), 407-449

Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: an integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of applied psychology, 95(1), 54. DOI:

Kellerman, B. (2007). What every leader needs to know about followers. Harvard Business Review, 85(12), 84.

Kellerman, B. (2008). How followers are creating change and changing leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard School Press.

Kellerman, B. (2013). Leading questions: The end of leadership–redux. Leadership, 9(1), 135-139. DOI:

Kelley, R. E. (1992). The power of followership: How to create leaders people want to follow, and followers who lead themselves. Broadway Business.

Kelley, R.E. (2008). Rethinking followership. In: Riggio RE, Chaleff I and Lipman-Blumen J (eds) The Art of Followership: How Great Followers Create Great Leaders and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 5–15

Kline, R. B. (2004). Beyond significance testing: Reforming data analysis methods in behavioral research. APA. DOI:

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2008). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership. School leadership and management, 28(1), 27-42. DOI:

Leithwood, K., Louis, K. S., Wahlstrom, K., Anderson, S., Mascall, B., & Gordon, M. (2010). How successful leadership influences student learning: The second installment of a longer story. In Second international handbook of educational change (pp. 611-629). Springer, Dordrecht. DOI:

Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., Wahlstrom, K. L., Anderson, S. E., Michlin, M., & Mascall, B. (2010). Learning from leadership: Investigating the links to improved student learning (Vol. 42). New York, NY: Wallace Foundation.

Malakyan, P. G. (2014). Followership in leadership studies: A case of leader–follower trade approach. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(4), 6-22. DOI:

Mannion, H., McKimm, J., & O'Sullivan, H. (2015). Followership, clinical leadership and social identity. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 76(5), 270-274. DOI:

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2016). The ability model of emotional intelligence: Principles and updates. Emotion review, 8(4), 290-300. DOI:

Mihelic, K. K., Lipicnik, B., & Tekavcic, M. (2010). Ethical leadership. International Journal of Management & Information Systems (IJMIS), 14(5). DOI:

Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and Practice. SAGE Publications Ltd (CA).

Notman, R., & Henry, D. A. (2011). Building and sustaining successful school leadership in New Zealand. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 10(4), 375-394. DOI:

Petrides, K. V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue). In Assessing emotional intelligence (pp. 85-101). Springer, Boston, MA. DOI:

Petrides, K. V. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence theory. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3(2), 136-139. DOI:

Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European journal of personality, 15(6), 425-448. DOI:

Petrides, K. V., Mason, M., & Sevdalis, N. (2011). Preliminary validation of the construct of trait social intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(6), 874-877. DOI:

Rajah, R., Song, Z., & Arvey, R. D. (2011). Emotionality and leadership: Taking stock of the past decade of research. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1107-1119. DOI:

Ricketts, K. G. (2009). Followership. Informally published manuscript, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Ruiz-Aranda, D., Castillo, R., Salguero, J. M., Cabello, R., Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Balluerka, N. (2012). Short-and midterm effects of emotional intelligence training on adolescent mental health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(5), 462-467. DOI:

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition and personality, 9(3), 185-211. DOI:

Sharma, M. K., & Jain, S. (2013). Leadership management: Principles, models and theories. Global Journal of Management and Business Studies, 3(3), 309-318.

Starbuck, C. R. (2015). An investigation of the relationship between follower perceptions of leader openness to experience and follower job satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 19(1), 118.

The Wallace Foundation. (2013). The school principal as leader: Guiding school leaders to better teaching and learning. Retrieved from

Uhl-Bien, M., Riggio, R. E., Lowe, K. B., & Carsten, M. K. (2014). Followership theory: A review and research agenda. The leadership quarterly, 25(1), 83-104. DOI:

Van Wart, M. (2013). Lessons from leadership theory and the contemporary challenges of leaders. Public Administration Review, 73(4), 553-565. DOI:

Wakeman, C. (2009). Emotional intelligence: Towards a generic framework for the 21st century. Educational futures, 2(1), 40-56.

Winston, B. E., Bekker, C., Cerff, K., Eames, D., Helland, M. R., & Garnes, D. (2006). Hope as a possible factor in the implementation of strategic plans. Unpublished manuscript, Regent University School of Leadership Studies, Virginia Beach, VA.

pschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529–551, April 1955. (references) DOI:

J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68–73.

I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, “Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,” in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271–350. DOI:

Broad Institute, Journal Article: Introduction (2021)




How to Cite

Arshad, S. S., Rafi, K., Zia Ul Badar, M., & Ishaque, M. M. (2021). Impact of School Leaders’ Emotional Intelligence on Followership among Teachers having Passive Followership Style. VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences, 9(4), 170–176.