Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and Work Engagement: A Correlational Study
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and work engagement (WE) of secondary school teachers in Punjab, Pakistan. The study was descriptive-correlational and quantitative in nature directing the positivistic paradigm. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select the individuals as sample. The sample was consisted of 300 male and female teachers from secondary schools. Two closed-ended questionnaires were adopted for data collection. A pilot study was conducted to ensure validity and reliability of the research instruments. Data were analyzed by using inferential statistics such as Pearson r, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one-way ANOVA. The study’s outcomes revealed that teachers’ emotional intelligence was positively correlated with work engagement. Male and female teachers were having difference in mean scores of emotional intelligence and work engagement. The study’s results indicated that teachers had no difference in mean scores of emotional intelligence and work engagement based on teaching experience. The results also revealed that teachers’ emotional intelligence had a strong significant effect on their work engagement at the secondary level. Based on the study’s results, it is recommended that teachers should be emotionally intelligent to enhance their level of work engagement.
Ali, M. S., Siddique, M., Siddique, A., Abbas, M., & Ali, S. (2021). Teachers' Citizenship Behavior as a Predictor of Teaching Performance: Evidence from Pakistani Context. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 9(3), 1135-1141. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2021.93112
Bakker, A., A., D., E., & Sanz-Vergel, A. (2014). Burnout and work engagement: The JD-R approach. The Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 389-411. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091235
Bakker, A. B., & Bal, M. P. (2010). Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 83(1), 189-206. https://doi.org/org/10.1348/096317909X402596
Bar-On, R. (2002). Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short. Technical Manual. Toronto, Mutli-Health Systems Inc.
Becker, E. S., Goetz, T., Morger, V., & Ranellucci, J. (2014). The importance of teachers' emotions and instructional behavior for their students' emotions–An experience sampling analysis. Teaching and Teacher education, 43(2014), 15-26. https://doi.org/org/10.1016/j.tate.2014.05.002
Butakor, P. K., Guo, Q., & Adebanji, A. O. (2021). Using structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between Ghanaian teachers' emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, professional identity, and work engagement. Psychology in the Schools, 58(3), 534-552. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22462
Fernández-Abascal, E. G., & Martín-Díaz, M. D. (2015). Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors. Frontiers in psychology, 6(2015), 1-14. https://doi.org/org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00317
Furnham, A., & Taylor, N. (2020). The relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational personality scales in senior management. Personality and Individual Differences, 154(2020), 1-5. https://doi.org/org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109647
Gill, G., & Sankulkar, S. (2017). An exploration of emotional intelligence in teaching: Comparison between practitioners from the United Kingdom & India. Journal of Psychology and Clinical Psychiatry, 7(2), 1-6.
Gong, Z., Chen, Y., & Wang, Y. (2019). The influence of emotional intelligence on job burnout and job performance: Mediating effect of psychological capital. Frontiers in psychology, 10(2019), 1-11. https://doi.org/org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02707
Granziera, H., Collie, R., & Martin, A. (2021). Understanding teacher wellbeing through job demands-resources theory. In Cultivating Teacher Resilience (pp. 229-244). Springer, Singapore.
Granziera, H., & Perera, H. N. (2019). Relations among teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, engagement, and work satisfaction: A social cognitive view. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 58(2019), 75-84. https://doi.org/org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.02.003
Hargraves, R. M. (2018). Relationship between teacher emotional intelligence and classroom climate in a school division in the Southeastern United States Regent University].
Harmsen, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., Maulana, R., & van Veen, K. (2018). The relationship between beginning teachers’ stress causes, stress responses, teaching behaviour and attrition. Teachers and Teaching, 24(6), 626-643. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2018.1465404
Hen, M., & Sharabi-Nov, A. (2014). Teaching the teachers: Emotional intelligence training for teachers. Teaching education, 25(4), 375-390. https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210.2014.908838
Hodzic, S., Scharfen, J., Ripoll, P., Holling, H., & Zenasni, F. (2018). How Efficient Are Emotional Intelligence Trainings: A Meta-Analysis. Emotion Review, 10(2), 138-148. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073917708613
Iyer, R. D. (2016). A study of work engagement among teachers in India. Global Business and Management Research, 8(1), 34-42.
Karimi, L., Leggat, S. G., Bartram, T., & Rada, J. (2020). The effects of emotional intelligence training on the job performance of Australian aged care workers. Health care management review, 45(1), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000200
Khan, S. (2016). Influence of Organizational Culture on Teacher's Work Engagement: An Empirical Study. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(4), 27-45.
Knight, C., Patterson, M., & Dawson, J. (2017). Building work engagement: A systematic review and meta‐analysis investigating the effectiveness of work engagement interventions. Journal of organizational behavior, 38(6), 792-812. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2167
Kuntz, J., Connell, P., & Näswall, K. (2017). Workplace resources and employee resilience: The role of regulatory profiles. Career development international, 22(4), 419-435. https://doi.org/10.1108/CDI-11-2016-0208
Lee, Y. H., Kwon, H. H., & Richards, K. A. R. (2019). Emotional intelligence, unpleasant emotions, emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in physical education teaching. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 38(3), 262-270. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2018-0177
Lestari, S. D., & Sawitri, D. R. (2017). Correlation between emotional intelligence and work engagement of special need school teachers. Advanced Science Letters, 23(4), 3480-3482. https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.9139
Li, M., Wang, Z., Gao, J., & You, X. (2017). Proactive personality and job satisfaction: The mediating effects of self-efficacy and work engagement in teachers. Current Psychology, 36(1), 48-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-015-9383-1
Maamari, B. E., & Majdalani, J. F. (2019). The effect of highly emotionally intelligent teachers on their students’ satisfaction. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(179-193). https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-11-2017-0338
Matešić, K. (2015). The Relationship between Cognitive and EmotionalIntelligence and High School Academic Achievement. Collegium antropologicum, 39(2), 371-375.
Mayer, C.-H., & Van Zyl, L. E. (2013). Perspectives of female leaders on sense of coherence and mental health in an engineering environment. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.10520/EJC146981
Mérida-López, S., Bakker, A. B., & Extremera, N. (2019). How does emotional intelligence help teachers to stay engaged? Cross-validation of a moderated mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences, 15(10), 10-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.04.048
Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). A meta‐analysis of emotional intelligence and work attitudes. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 90(2), 177-202. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12167
Pekaar, K. A., van der Linden, D., Bakker, A. B., & Born, M. P. (2017). Emotional intelligence and job performance: The role of enactment and focus on others’ emotions. Human Performance, 30(2-3), 135-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2017.1332630
Pekrun, R., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2014). Emotional Intelligence in Education: From Pop to Emerging Science. In International Handbook of Emotions in Education (pp. 172-192). Routledge.
Pena, M., Rey, L., & Extremera, N. (2012). Life satisfaction and engagement in elementary and primary educators: Differences in emotional intelligence and gender. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17(2), 341-360. https://doi.org/10.1387/Rev.Psicodidact.4496
Perera, H. N., Vosicka, L., Granziera, H., & McIlveen, P. (2018). Towards an integrative perspective on the structure of teacher work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 108(8), 28-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2018.05.006
Pérez-Fuentes, M. D. C., Molero Jurado, M. D. M., Gázquez Linares, J. J., & Oropesa Ruiz, N. F. (2018). The role of emotional intelligence in engagement in nurses. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(9), 1915.
Petrides, K. V., Mikolajczak, M., Mavroveli, S., Sanchez-Ruiz, M.-J., Furnham, A., & Pérez-González, J.-C. (2016). Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion Review, 8(4), 335-341. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073916650493
Pugazhenthi, P., & Srinivasan, P. (2018). Impact of teaching efficiency through emotional intelligence on the performance of B. ed teacher trainees. Global Journal for Research Analysis. Education, 7(5), 396-397.
Ravichandran, K., Arasu, R., & Kumar, S. A. (2011). The impact of emotional intelligence on employee work engagement behavior: An empirical study. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(11), 157-169. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v6n11p157
Robinson, E., Hull, L., & Petrides, K. (2020). Big Five model and trait emotional intelligence in camouflaging behaviours in autism. Personality and Individual Differences, 152(2020), 109565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109565
Sánchez-Álvarez, N., Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2016). The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(3), 276-285.
Schaufeli, W., & Demerouti, E. (2007). Work engagement: An emerging Psychological Concept and its Implications for Organization, 135-177. Diterbitkan oleh Information Age Publishing.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi‐sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25(3), 293-315.
Seligman, M. (2005). La auténtica felicidad (M. Diago & A. Debrito, Trads.). Colombia: Imprelibros, SA (Trabajo original publicado en 2002).
Serrat, O. (2017). The sustainable livelihoods approach. In Knowledge solutions (pp. 21-26). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0983-9_5
Siddique, M., Ali, M. S., Nasir, N., Awan, T. H., & siddiique, A. (2021). Resilience and Self-Efficacy: A Correlational Study of 10th Grade Chemistry Students in Pakistan. Multicultural Education, 7(9), 210-222. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4912254
Simons, J. C., & Buitendach, J. H. (2013). Psychological capital, work engagement and organisational commitment amongst call centre employees in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1-12.
Subalakshmi, S., Sunderaraj, R., & Manikandan, M. (2019). Impact of emotional intelligence on stress: With special reference to government school teachers. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management, 8(1), 7-21.
Taris, T. W., Leisink, P. L., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2017). Applying occupational health theories to educator stress: Contribution of the job demands-resources model. In Educator stress (pp. 237-259). Springer.
Thor, S. (2012). Organizational excellence: A study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and work engagement in process improvement experts George Fox University].
Topchyan, R., & Woehler, C. (2021). Do Teacher Status, Gender, and Years of Teaching Experience Impact Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement? Education and Urban Society, 53(2), 119-145. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124520926161
Turgut, T. (2011a). Çalişmaya tutkunluk: iş yükü, esnek çalişma saatleri, yönetici desteği ve iş-aile çatişmasi ile ilişkileri. Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 25(3-4), 155-179.
Turgut, T. (2011b). ÇALIŞMAYA TUTKUNLUK: İŞ YÜKÜ, ESNEK ÇALIŞMA SAATLERİ, YÖNETİCİ DESTEĞİ VE İŞ-AİLE ÇATIŞMASI İLE İLİŞKİLERİ. Ataturk University Journal of Economics & Administrative Sciences, 25(4), 155-180.
Turner, K., & Stough, C. (2020). Pre-service teachers and emotional intelligence: A scoping review. The Australian Educational Researcher, 47(2), 283-305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-019-00352-0
Upadyaya, K., Vartiainen, M., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2016). From servant leadership to work engagement, life satisfaction, and occupational health: Job demands and resources. Burn. Res, 3(2), 101-108.
Valente, S. (2019). Influência da inteligência emocional na gestão de conflito na relação professor-aluno (s). Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación, 6(2), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.17979/reipe.2019.6.2.5786
Vesely-Maillefer, A. K., & Saklofske, D. H. (2018). Emotional intelligence and the next generation of teachers. Emotional Intelligence in Education, 7(6), 377-402. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-90633-1_14
Vesely, A. K., Saklofske, D. H., & Leschied, A. D. (2013). Teachers—The vital resource: The contribution of emotional intelligence to teacher efficacy and well-being. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(1), 71-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573512468855
Yan, X., Yang, K., Su, J., Luo, Z., & Wen, Z. (2018). Mediating role of emotional intelligence on the associations between core self-evaluations and job satisfaction, work engagement as indices of work-related well-being. Current Psychology, 37(3), 552-558. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-016-9531-2
Yin, H. (2015). The effect of teachers’ emotional labour on teaching satisfaction: Moderation of emotional intelligence. Teachers and Teaching, 21(7), 789-810. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.995482
Zembylas, M. (2005). Discursive practices, genealogies, and emotional rules: A poststructuralist view on emotion and identity in teaching. Teaching and Teacher education, 21(8), 935-948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.005
Zhu, Y., Liu, C., Guo, B., Zhao, L., & Lou, F. (2015). The impact of emotional intelligence on work engagement of registered nurses: The mediating role of organisational justice. Journal of clinical nursing, 24(15-16), 2115-2124. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12807
- There are currently no refbacks.