Teaching Writing to Students with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Investigation

Kashif Iqbal, tahira zafarullah, Ayesha Zia


Writing is the major skill in education for students with physical disabilities. Students with physical disabilities are also supposed to have mastery in writing skill to accomplish their academic goals. This study was based on a qualitative approach to analyze errors made by students with physical disabilities in writing, problems experienced by their teachers. The population of the study were all students with physical disabilities from school level, their teachers in Lahore city. Data of 31 respondents including teachers (N= 15) and students with physical disabilities (N=16) from grade 4, 5 and 6 were taken as a sample by using the purposive sampling technique. The instruments of the study were an interview protocol for teachers and syllabus based test for students with physical disabilities. Data was collected through interviews and syllabus based test. Qualitative data including interviews response and document analysis was analyzed through coding & thematic analysis by following up a validated writing rubric. The findings of the study revealed that there are many errors that students with physical disabilities make while writing. It was also founded that teachers experience many problems while teaching writing to students with physical disabilities. Additionally, strategies used by teachers while teaching writing were also the part of the findings. Teacher’s training and conceptual learning of writing skill for students with physical disabilities were strongly recommended for better teaching and learning process

Full Text:



Albert Efendi Pohan, (2017).STUDENTS’ ERRORS ON WRITING (An Analysis Studies at Junior High School)

Applebee, A., & Langer, J. (2011). A snapshot of writing instruction in middle schools and high schools. English Journal, 100, 14–27.

Audrey Lebrasseur et. Al, 2021, Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities: A rapid review, Disabil Health J. 2021 Jan; 14(1): 101014. doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2020.101014 PMCID: PMC7603994

August 2017 · JURNAL DIMENSI 6(2). DOI:10.33373/dms.v6i2.1056

Bangert-Drowns, R., Hurley, M., & Wilkinson, B. (2004). The effects of school-based writing to-learn interventions on academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 74, 29–58.

Coker, D., Farley-Ripley, E., Jackson, A., Wen, H., MacArthur, C., & Jennings, A. (2016). Writing instruction in first grade: An observational study. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29, 793–832.

De Smedt, F., van Keer, H., & Merchie, E. (2016). Student, teacher, and class-level correlates of Flemish late elementary school children’s writing performance. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29, 833–868.

Dockrell, J., Marshall, C., & Wyse, D. (2016). Teachers’ reported practices for teaching writing in England. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29, 409–434.

Freedman, S. W., Hull, G. A., Higgs, J. M., & Booten, K. P. (2016). Teaching writing in a digital and global age: Toward access, learning, and development for all. In D. H. Gitomer & C. A. Bell (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching (5th ed., pp. 1389–1450). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Gilbert, J., & Graham, S. (2010). Teaching writing to elementary students in Grades 4 to 6: A national survey. Elementary School Journal, 110, 494–518.

Graham, S. (2006). Writing. In P. Alexander & P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 457–478). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Graham, S. (2018a). A revised writer(s)-within-community model of writing. Educational Psychologist, 53, 258–279.

Graham, S. (2018a). A revised writer(s)-within-community model of writing. Educational Psychologist, 53, 258–279.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Chambers, A. (2016). Evidence-based practice and writing instruction. In C. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (Vol. 2, pp. 211–226). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Harris, K. R. (2018). Educational psychology: A future retrospective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110, 163–173.

Joseph Defazio et. All., 2010, Academic literacy: The importance and impact of writing across the curriculum – a case study

Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2010, pp. 34 -47.

Koko, K. (2016). Writing in mathematics: A survey of K–12 teachers’ reported frequency in the classroom. School Science & Mathematics, 116, 276–285.

Lokanath Mishra, Tushar Gupta, Abha Shree, (2020). Online teaching-learning in higher education during lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic International Journal of Educational Research Open, Volume 1, 2020, 100012

McCarthy, S., & Ro, Y. (2011). Approaches to writing instruction. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 6, 273–295.

Mo, Y., & Troia, G. (2017). Similarities and differences in constructs represented by U.S. middle school writing tests and the 2007 national assessment of educational progress writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 33, 48–67.

Peter J. Chung, Dilip R. Patel, Iman Nizami, (2020), Disorder of written expression and dysgraphia: definition, diagnosis, and management, Journal Transl Pediatrv.9(Suppl 1); 2020 FebPMC7082241, Translational Pediatrics Transl Pediatr. 2020 Feb; 9(Suppl 1): S46–S54. doi: 10.21037/tp.2019.11.01 PMCID: PMC7082241

Rachel Nyanamoney Moses, Maslawati Mohamad, (2019). Challenges Faced by Students and Teachers on Writing Skills in ESL Contexts: A Literature Review. Creative Education > Vol.10 No.13, December 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.1013260 PDF HTML XML 19,540

Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, v29 n5 p903-928 May 2016 ISSN: ISSN-0922-4777

Ryan John WINDSOR, (2021). The effectiveness of an online grammar study scheme for Chinese undergraduate students Jo

urnal Smart Learning Environments. Volume: 8, Published - 10 Mar 2021 J10.1186/s40561-021-00147-w

Steve Graham, (2018b), A Revised Writer(s)-Within-Community Model of Writing, Educational Psychologist , Volume 53, 2018 - Issue 4: Conceptualizing Writing, Pages 258-279 | Published online: 04 Oct 2018 doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2018.1481406CrossMark Logo

Steve Graham, (2019), Changing How Writing Is Taught Review of Research in Education March 2019, Vol. 43, pp. 277–303 DOI: 10.3102/0091732X18821125

Steve Graham, 2019, Chapter 10 Changing How Writing Is Taught, Review of Research in Education, Vol. 43, pp. 277–303 https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X18821125 DOI: 10.3102/0091732X18821125

Steve Graham, Rui A. Alves, (2021). Research and teaching writing. Reading and Writing volume 34, pages1613–1621 (2021)

Tolchinsky, L. (2016). From text to language and back again: The emergence of written language. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (2nd ed., pp. 144–159). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Jeffery, Jill V.; Gardner-Bixler, Andrea, (2016), Writing to the Common Core: Teachers' Responses to Changes in Standards and Assessments for Writing in Elementary Schools.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21015/vtess.v10i2.1033


  • There are currently no refbacks.