Relationship of Energy Projects in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) with Public Health: A Mediating Role of Climatic Change

Muhammad Faisal Sultan, Mirza Kashif Baig, Syed Ahmed Ghayas


CPEC is the main vain for China’s incentive of One Belt One Road (OBOR) and will connect China to the rest of the world through different land and sea routes However, there are very few studies that examine the benefits of CPEC for the local community regardless of the fact that CPEC has positive as well as negative consequences. Especially with respect to culture, and environment, and climate therefore, a study is mandatory which examines the environmental harms of CEPC. However, secondary data is required to gauge all forms of environmental consequences like bio-diversity and wildlife etc.Therefore, this study is specifically focused on climatic consequences of CPEC & their impact on public health. To attain the purpose, study has been supplemented with convenience sampling from inhabitants of associated areas of CPEC. Results established through SMART-PLS revealed that CPEC is one of the major reasons to cause climatic drift.

Full Text:



Ab Hamid, M. R., Sami, W., & Sidek, M. M. (2017, September). Discriminant validity assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT criterion. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 890, No. 1, p. 012163). IOP Publishing

Afthanorhan, W. M. A. B. W. (2014). Hierarchical component using reflective-formative measurement model in partial least square structural equation modeling (Pls-Sem). International Journal of Mathematics, 2(2), 33-49

Ali, M. (2020). China–Pakistan Economic Corridor: prospects and challenges. Contemporary South Asia, 28(1), 100-112

Alam, A. R. (2020, January, 2020). Why don’t CPEC projects factor in the climate crisis?. China Dialogue,

Ali, L., Mi, J., Shah, M., Khan, A., & Imran, M. (2017). Transport culture akin to the China-Pakistan economic corridor. Human Systems Management, 36(4), 381-396

Ali, M. (2018). Pakistan’s quest for coal-based energy under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): implications for the environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(32), 31935-31937

Awais, M., Samin, T., Gulzar, M. A., & Hwang, J. (2019). The Sustainable Development of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Synergy among Economic, Social, and Environmental Sustainability. Sustainability, 11(24), 7044

Benitez, J., Henseler, J., Castillo, A., & Schuberth, F. (2020). How to perform and report an impactful analysis using partial least squares: Guidelines for confirmatory and explanatory IS research. Information & Management, 57(2), 103168

Chun, K. K., (2020, MAY 11). China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): The Flag Ship Project of One Belt One Road Initiative. ArcGIS Story Maps,

Cohen, R. J., Swerdlik, M. E., & Phillips, S. M. (1996). Psychological testing and assessment: An introduction to tests and measurement. Mayfield Publishing Company

DeVellis, R. F. (2016). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). Sage publications

Duarte, P., & Amaro, S. (2018). Methods for modelling reflective-formative second order constructs in PLS. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9(3), 295-31

Durani, M. Q., & Khan, M. B. (2018). The Environmental Impact of The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): A Case Study. Abasyn University Journal of Social Sciences, 11(1), 201-221

Eckstein, D., Hutfils, M. L., & Winges, M. (2018). Global Climate Risk Index 2019: Who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related Loss Events in 2017 and 1998 to 2017. Germanwatch Nord-Süd Initiative eV

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2017). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. SAGE publications

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications,better results and higher acceptance. Long range planning, 46(1-2), 1-12

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review. 31(1), 2-24

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 40(3), 414-433

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Hillman & McCalpin, (2020, April 7). The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor at Five. CSIS Brief.

Huang, Y., Fischer, T. B., & Xu, H. (2017). The stakeholder analysis for SEA of Chinese foreign direct investment: the case of ‘One Belt, One Road’ initiative in Pakistan. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 35(2), 158-171

Hwang, H., Malhotra, N. K., Kim, Y., Tomiuk, M. A., & Hong, S. (2010). A comparative study on parameter recovery of three approaches to structural equation modeling. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(4), 699-712

Kanwal, S., Chong, R., & Pitafi, A. H. (2019). China–Pakistan economic corridor projects development in Pakistan: Local citizens benefits perspective. Journal of Public Affairs, 19(1), e1888

Karacaoglu, K., Bayrakdaroglu, A., & San, F. B. (2013). The impact of corporate entrepreneurship on firms' financial performance: Evidence from Istanbul Stock Exchange Firms. International Business Research, 6(1), 163-175.

Khan (2018, January 1). CPEC as environmental disaster. Global Village Space.

Khan, G. F., Sarstedt, M., Shiau, W. L., Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Fritze, M. P. (2019). Methodological research on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Internet Research, 29(3), 407-429

Khwaja, M. A., Saeed, S., & Urooj, M. (2018). Preliminary environmental impact assessment (EIA) study of China-Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC) northern route road construction activities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK),Pakistan.Policy Brief # 59. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, retrieved from

Kock, N., & Hadaya, P. (2018). Minimum sample size estimation in PLS‐SEM: The inverse square root and gamma‐exponential methods. Information Systems Journal, 28(1), 227-261

Kouser, S., & Subhan, A & Abedullah. (2020). Uncovering Pakistan’s Environmental Risks and Remedies under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(5), 4661-4663

Levers, M. J. D. (2013). Philosophical paradigms, grounded theory, and perspectives on emergence. Sage Open, 3(4),2158244013517243

Long, H. (2014). An empirical review of research methodologies and methods in creativity studies (2003–2012). Creativity Research Journal, 26(4), 427-438

Maqsoom, A., Aslam, B., Khalil, U., Ghorbanzadeh, O., Ashraf, H., Faisal Tufail, R. & Blaschke, T. (2020). A GIS-based DRASTIC Model and an Adjusted DRASTIC Model (DRASTICA) for Groundwater Susceptibility Assessment along the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) Route. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9(5),332.

Nabi, G., Ali, M., Khan, S., & Kumar, S. (2019). The crisis of water shortage and pollution in Pakistan: risk to public health,biodiversity, and ecosystem. Environmental science and pollution research, 26(11), 10443-10445

Ormston, R., Spencer, L., Barnard, M., & Snape, D. (2014). The foundations of qualitative research. Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers, 2, 52-55

Pathirage, C. P., Amaratunga, R. D. G., & Haigh, R. P. (2008). The role of philosophical context in the development of research methodology and theory. The Built and Human Environment Review, 1(1), 1-10

Rauf, A. (2019, August 24). Environmental Impact Assessment of CPEC Projects and Mitigation Strategy. Pakistan Observer,

Revilla, M. A., Saris, W. E., & Krosnick, J. A. (2014). Choosing the number of categories in agree–disagree scales. Sociological Methods & Research, 43(1), 73-97

Richter, N.F., Sinkovics, R.R., Ringle, C.M. and Schlägel, C. (2016), A critical look at the use of SEM in international business research, International Marketing Review, 33(3), 376-404

Saad, A., Xinping, G., & Ijaz, M. (2019). China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and its influence on perceived economic and social goals: Implications for social policy makers. Sustainability, 11(18), 494

Saunders, M. N., & Lewis, P. (2012). Doing research in business & management: An essential guide to planning your project.

Saunders, M. N., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A., & Bristow, A. (2015). Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development, Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: Pearson Education, Pearson

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. psychology press

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons

Sijtsma, K. (2009a). Over misverstanden rond Cronbachs alfa en de wenselijkheid van alternatieven. Psycholoog, 44(11), 561

Sijtsma, K. (2009b). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 10

Sinkovics, R. R., Richter, N. F., Ringle, C. M., & Schlaegel, C. (2016). A critical look at the use of SEM in international business research. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 376-404

Snape, D. S. E.(2003). The Foundations of Qualitative Research. Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers, 2-23

Taherdoost, H. (2017). Determining sample size; how to calculate survey sample size. International Journal of Economics and Management Systems, 2, 237-239.

Tehsin, M., Khan, A. A., & Sargana, T. U. H. (2017). CPEC and sustainable economic growth for Pakistan. Pakistan Vision, 18(2), 102-118

Vargas-Sánchez, A., do Valle, P. O., da Costa Mendes, J., & Silva, J. A. (2015). Residents' attitude and level of destination development: An international comparison. Tourism Management, 48, 199-210

Vimalanathan, K., & Babu, R. T. (2017). A Study on the Effect of Ergonomics on Computer Operating Office Workers in India. J Ergonomics, 7(5), doi:10.4172/2165-7556.1000211

Wang, J., Wang, N., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., & Liu, L. (2012). Determination of the minimum sample size for the transmission load of a wheel loader based on multi-criteria decision-making technology. Journal of Terramechanics, 49(3-4),147-160

Waraich, M. S. (2019, December 13). CPEC/BRI and fate of Gilgit-Baltistan.ArcGIS Story Maps,

Wong, K. K. K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using Smart PLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1-32

Zhang, R., & Shi, G. (2016). Social impacts assessment for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor investment activities. Energy, 33, 76-82

Zhang, R., Andam, F., & Shi, G. (2017). Environmental and social risk evaluation of overseas investment under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 189(6), 253.



  • There are currently no refbacks.