Specification of Operating Rules for Water Reservoir to Manage Flood Using Z-Notation


  • Hasrat Alam AWKUM UCSS Computer Science Department




Flood is natural event; it brings a lot of destruction. Due to flood not only loss of human life and misery of millions of people occur, but tremendous damages occur in public and private property.  It cannot be stopped, but can be managed to save the lives and property of the people. To manage a flood, there are two solutions, physical and logical. In physical solutions, different physical constructions are made to manage flood like levee, channel improvement, flood ways, and widening of barrages, but these control works have many deficiencies. In logical solutions, models and techniques are developed to manage the flood, however, these systems also have some deficiencies. To overcome the deficiencies in the existing models, we focus on to develop a flood management model consisting of an off-river reservoir and diverted canals having regulators. Reservoirs are most effective water storage that smooth down extreme inflow.  The optimal operations of reservoirs determine the release and accumulation of water over time. For effective operative decision, operating rules will be defined in Z-Specification. For these operating rules, we will develop an algorithm, will verify the rules in Z-Notation and will implement them in the Java programming language.


. Ahmad, S. & Simonovic, S. P., 2000. Dynamic modeling of flood management policies. Bergen, Norway, In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society: Sustainability in the Third Millennium, pp. 6-10.

. Ahmad, S. & Slobodan, P. S., 2000. System dynamics modeling of reservoir operations for flood management. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 7, 14(3), pp. 190-198.

. Allen, P., 2009. Operation of spillway gates—how to avoid the problems and pitfalls. Caloundra, Peter Allen, 34th Annual Qld Water Industry Operations Workshop, pp. 98-105.

. Asif, R. S. I., 2012. Analysis and Design of Flood Prediction Model using Mobile Agents, Lahore: Roa Sohail Iqbal Asif, University of Central Punjab.

. Bakker, M., Baker, R., Meinzen-Dick, R. & Konradsen, F., 1999. Multiple Uses of Water in Irrigated Areas: A Case Study from Sri Lanka, Colombo: International Water Management Institute.

. Barlas, Y., 2007. System Dynamics: Systemic Feedback Modeling for Policy Analysis. 1st ed. Istanbul: Boğaziçi University.

. Bartlett, R. E., 1981. Surface Water Sewerage. [Online]

Available at: http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=165264#

[Accessed 05 02 2015].

. Batuca, D. G. & Jordaan, J. J. M., 2000. General Consideration about Reservoirs. In: Silting and Desilting of Reservoirs. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema Publishers, pp. 11-19.

. Bowen, P. J., 1988. Formal specification in Z as a design and documentation tool. Livepool, IET, pp. 164-168.

. Bowles, D. S., Mathias, J. D., Chauhan, S. S. & Countryman, J. D., 2004. Reservoir Release Forecast Model for Flood Operation of the Folsom Project Including Pre-Releases. Denver, United States Society On Dams.

. Chang, F. J. & Chang, Y. T., 2006. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for prediction of water level in reservoir. Advances in Water Resources, 29(1), pp. 1-10.

. Cheng, C. T. & Chau, K. W., 2004. Flood control management system for reservoirs. Environmental Modelling & Software, 19(12), p. 1141–1150.

. Chen, L. et al., 2010. A new seasonal design flood method based on bivariate joint distribution of flood magnitude and date of occurrence. Hydrological Sciences Journal–Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques, 55(8), pp. 1264-1280.

. Cigizoglu, H. K. et al., 2007. Artificial Neural Network Models in Rainfall-Runoff Modelling of Turkish Rivers. Turcia, Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), pp. 560-571.

. Fang, L. et al., 2010. A flood emergency response system based on flood disaster evaluation models. Beijing, IEEE, pp. 1-4.

. Firat, M., 2007. Artificial intelligence techniques for river flow forecastint in the seyhan river catchement. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS), 4(3), pp. 1369-1406.

. Gamble, R. F., 1995. Integrating a formal specification course with a software projects course via an editing tool. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 27(1), pp. 312-316.

. Ghazali, J. N. & Kamisn, A., 2008. A Real Time Simulation and Modeling of Flood Hazard. Heraklion, WSEAS International Conference. Proceedings. Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering (No. 12). WSEAS., pp. 438-443.

. Golian, S., Moazami, S., Yazdi, J. & Sheshangosht, S., 2010. An IFM-based flood damage reduction: A small study area in Iran. Kyoto, IEEE.

. Guo, S. et al., 2004. A reservoir flood forecasting and control system for China/Un système chinois de prévision et de contrôle de crue en barrage. Hydrological sciences journal, 49(6).

. Haktanir, T. & Kisi, Ö., 2001. Ten-stage discrete flood routing for dams having gated spillways. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 1, 6(1), pp. 86-90.

. Hsu, N. S. & Wei, C. C., 2007. A multipurpose reservoir real-time operation model for flood control during typhoon invasion. Journal of Hydrology, 7 4, 336(3), pp. 282-293.

. Iqbal, R. S. et al., 2013. A Mobile Agent-Based Algorithm for Prediction of Inundation Area. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, January, 3(1), pp. 72-77.

. Jain, S. K., Goel, M. K. & Agarwal, P. K., 1998. Reservoir operation studies of Sabarmati system, India. Journal of water resources planning and management, 124(1), pp. 31-37.

. Javadi, S., Kiapasha, M. S. & Mohammadi, K., 2009. Object Oriented Simulation; Its Application in Water Reservoir Management and Operation. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp. 331-340.

. Jin, Q., Chen, J., Wang, H. & Zhao, S., 2010. Research on Regional Flood Disaster Risk Assessment Based on PCA and BP Neural Network. Nanjing, IEEE.

. Kang, L. & Guo, X., 2010. Research on application of cross structure flood risk assessment decision support system using Bayesian Network. Chengdu, IEEE.

. Lee, S., 2011. Formal Methods in Software Enginering. Kuala Lumpur: FTMS Consultants (M) Sdn Bhd Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

. Liaqat, W., 2012. Types of Spillways. [Online]

Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/waleedliaqat/spillways

[Accessed 31 08 2015].

. Lin, Z. & Qiang, Q., 2010. Notice of Retraction The Research on Problem of Flood Insurance Pricing Based on the DFA in PR China. Wuhan, IEEE, pp. 1-7.

. Li, X., Guo, S., Liu, P. & Chen, G., 2010. Dynamic control of flood limited water level for reservoir operation by considering inflow uncertainty. Journal of hydrology, 391(1), pp. 124-132.

. Luk, S.-h. & Whitney, J., 1993. MEGAPROJECT A Case Study of China's three Gorges Project, London: 3 Henrietta Street, London WC2E 8LU.

. Matei, A. M., 2008. An analysis of modern monitoring and preventing techniques of floods. Mathematics-Informatics-Physics Series, 60(2), pp. 86-92.

. Naliki, J. A., 2014. Design of a multipurpose reservoir in Nzeveni area Makueni County. [Online]

Available at: http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/78579

[Accessed 21 08 2015].

. Noori, M., Othman, F., Sharifi, M. B. & Heydari, M., 2013. Multi Objective Operation Optimization of Reservoirs Using Genetic Algorithm. Singapore, IACSIT Press.

. Perry, C. A., 1993. Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Discharges in the Kansas and the Missouri River Basins, Denver: United States Government Printing Office.

. Potter, B., Till, D. & Sinclair, J., 1996. An Introduction to Formal Specification ans Z. USA: Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle river,NJ,USA.

. Qadir, C. G., 2010. Flood 2010 in Pakistan and its damages. Lahore, Director / PRO (Hydraulics) Irrigation Research Institute, Punjab Irrigation and Power Department, Lahore., pp. 197-219.

. Sawunyama, T., 2005. Estimation of small reservoir storage capabilities in Limpopo river basin using geographical information system and remote sensed surface areas. [Online]

Available at: http://www.smallreservoirs.org/full/publications/reports/UZ-Sawunyama-MSc-thesis-0605.pdf

[Accessed 05 01 2015].

. Sengupta, S. K. et al., 2006. Flood Forecasting and Inundation Mapping in the Mahanadi River Basin, Odisha: A Collaborative Effort between India and the United States.

. Shao-fei, L., 2011. Assessment of flood hazard risk based on catastrophe theory in flood detention basins. Lushan, IEEE, pp. 139-142.

. Siddiqui, I., 2008. Dams and Reservoirs: Planning Engineering. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

. Spivey, J. M., 1992. The Z Notation. 2nd ed. UK: Prentic Hall international (UK) Ltd.

. Tariq, A., 2012. Dam and Reservoir Engineering. 1st ed. Punjav: Punjab Irrigation Agriculture Investment Program (PIAIP).

. Tariq, A., 2012. Dam Spillways. In: A. Tariq, ed. Dam and Reservoir Engineering. Lahore: Punjab Irrigation Agriculture Investment Program (PIAIP), pp. 381-495.

. Tariq, A., 2012. Introduction. In: A. Tariq, ed. Dam and Resevoir Engineering. Lahore: Punjab Irrigation Agriculture Investment Program (PIAIP), pp. 1-48.

. Thornton, J., Steel, A. & Rast, W., 1996. Reservoirs. In: D. Chapman, ed. Water Quality Assesments – Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring. 2nd ed. Cambridge: E&FN Spon, an imprint of Chapman & Hall, pp. 371-411.

. Tomac, J., 2014. Design and Evaluation of an Irrigation Storage Reservoir, Jimmy Tomac, Polytechnic State University: California.

. Valdes, J. B. & Marco, J. B., 1995. Managing reservoirs for flood control. Perugia, Italy, In Proceedings of the US–Italy Research Workshop on the Hydrometeorology, Impacts, and Management of Extreme Floods.

. Woodcock, J. & Davies, J., 1996. Using Z. 1st ed. Oxford: University of Oxford.

. Wu, C. et al., 2010. Set pair analysis and BP neural network coupling model for optimal selection of flood control operation. Xuzhou, IEEE, pp. 2238-2243.

. Wurbs, R. A., 1991. Optimization of Multiple-Purpose Reservoir System Operations: A Review of Modeling and Analysis Approaches, Davis: US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center.

. Yuliang, Z., Ping, Z., Juliang, J. & Libing, Z., 2010. Application of Interpolation Model Based on Genetic Algorithm to Comprehensive Evaluation of Flood Disaster Loss. Wuhan, IEEE, pp. 272-275.

. Zhang, X. Z., Jing, R. L. & Tang, K. D., 2011. Evaluation for flood control influence on Zhangjiazhuang (Cihe River) bridge. Xi'an, IEEE, pp. 474-477.